Type 1 diabetes symptoms crop up suddenly thereby making people go for diabetes testing. However, symptoms of prediabetes and other kinds of diabetes show themselves gradually and may not even be evident.
Tests for Prediabetes, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test: This blood test shows an average blood sugar level for the past three months. It measures the oxygen-carrying protein in RBC and the percentage of blood sugar affixed to hemoglobin. You have diabetes if the A1C level is 6.5% or higher on two different tests. Below 5.7% is normal whereas A1C ranging between 5.7% and 6.6% suggests prediabetes.
Random blood sugar test: Blood sugar levels would be checked randomly without considering when you ate your last meal. If the sugar level is 200 mg/dL or 11.1 mmol/L or higher, it means you have diabetes.
Fasting blood sugar test: A sample of your blood would be taken in the morning after an overnight fast. If the level is less than 100 mg/dL, you do not have diabetes. However, if the finding is 126 mg/dL or higher, on two different tests then you have the disease. If the level is between 100 and 125 mg/dL then you have prediabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test: This test is conducted after an overnight fasting. After that, you are given a sugary liquid. Blood sugar levels would now be tested at an interval of two hours periodically. If the level is less than 140 mg/dL then it is normal. Readings above 200 mg/dL suggest diabetes and blood glucose level between 140 and 190 mg/dl is an indication of prediabetes.
If doctors suspect Type 1 diabetes, then urine will also be tested. This is to see if there is the presence of a by-product that is produced when fat and muscle tissues are used for energy. It happens because the body does not possess the required amount of insulin to use ketones.
Your doctor may also suggest tests for gestational diabetes if you are at risk of developing the same. The risk factors include obesity at the start of pregnancy, gestational diabetes during a prior pregnancy, diabetes running in your family.